Greenaway Model of Reflection

What is Greenaway's model of reflection?

In 1995, Greenaway presented the DO – REVIEW - PLAN model. Prior to this 1995 article, Roger Greenaway had released three articles published between 1992-1993 in the Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership about reviewing outdoor experiences. The first article was titled Doing Reviewing. This was an interesting read with one quote being “One of the main purposes of reviewing is to keep in touch with what participants are thinking and feeling, and that may not happen to correspond with a pre-planned reviewing sequence” (Greenaway, 1992: 15). Greenaway’s idea here was that reviewing was a way for the educator to find out what the participants gain from the outdoor adventure in this example and review whether this was what was planned. In education the teacher will participate in a certain situation to get the student to experience a certain activity, or viewpoint. Reviewing was essentially to ensure that the student was experiencing what was planned, and if not, the review would then allow for changes to be implemented.

In this early work Greenaway mentioned that unexpected outcomes could be experienced. In the Doing Reviewing article an example was mentioned whereby a participant who performed exceptionally well with the overnight solo challenge had actually had prior experience in this given that they had spent much of the previous week sleeping out in a bus shelter because of personal issues. This was not revealed until the review, but by having the review it allowed the leaders to identify that this was unexpected and allowed the leaders to learn from this experience (Greenaway, 1992: 16).

In later years, Dr Roger Greenaway presented the four F’s model of reflection, namely:

Facts: An objective account of what happened.

Feelings: The emotions had during the situation.

Findings: The concrete learning that can be derived from the situation.

Future: How leaning can be structured in the future in a way that is useful for this situation (see University of Edinburgh, 2019).

Note that this model was developed after the initial Greenaway Model of Reflection, developed in 1995 which had three steps, namely DO-REVIEW-PLAN.

It could be noted that the focus of the model would be that a person learns by doing. Reviewing the literature on the model it appears that it is more widely used within teaching professions as opposed to healthcare.

Illustration of Greenaway 'Do-Review-Plan' Model

Greenaway Model Of Reflection

Illustration of Greenaway's 4F's Model

Greenaway 4f S Model

Like other reflective models the aim of the DO-REVIEW-PLAN model and the 4 F’s is to guide the use to write a reflective report, providing a pre-determined structure for reflection. It is similar to the Gibbs Model of Reflection though with less steps to consider. Taking Figure 1 above the steps could be replaced by DO (CARE PLAN DELIVERY) – REVIEW (CARE PLAN EVALUATION) – PLAN (CARE PLAN DELIVERY). In a healthcare setting it could be argued that this reflection model is already used extensively. A nurse would deliver a care plan to a patient initially created with the help of theory and past examples. Though each patient is different and with such there is the need to review the effectiveness of the plan. This review may lead to reflection and discussion with peers. Potentially a specific group of patients who differ by gender, age, location may not react the same to the proposed treatment. This will create recommendation which would then be reflected into a plan for future care ready to be used for the next situation.

Why use the Greenaway reflective model?

The 1995 model is easy to remember being DO-REVIEW-PLAN. It is a singular closed-loop model which focuses on a specific event. Criticism of this model has focused on the lack of signposting at each stage of this model given that are vague. For instance other models such as Gibbs provide more detail in what should be considered at each stage of their reflective cycle, while the 1995 Greenaway model is basic. The 4F model was an improvement on such as it includes specific areas to consider emotions as well as future recommendations. Rather than just considering the process, the user can consider how the situation made them feel, and react (Bulman & Schutz, 2013).

Though Greenaway’s 1995 model is important as it places a focus on prior planning before doing which is applicable to situations in education and nursing where repetitive tasks may be undertaken. For instance, in nursing this could be used for routine assessments or operations whereby a review must be considered each time which in turn will then influence the prior planning before the next situation. For instance after the initial review of an assessment it may be concluded that there was insufficient communication between nurses, in turn creating a recommendation from the review which can be implemented, meaning that a team meeting would be planned in prior to the next assessment. The above is useful, however given that the model is vague it may be expected that results would differ dependant on whoever uses it to reflect, and so novices at self-reflection may fail to produce any worthy recommendations (Howatson-Jones, 2016). This model fails to provide the signposting that someone without academic knowledge into self-reflection will need. It provides a simplified chain of events which need to be done but doesn’t specify how one should approach each event.

The later 4F’s model from Greenaway seemed to overcome this criticism by splitting the review section into feelings and findings, in turn providing a bit more signposting.

Greenaway Reflective Model Template

Greenaway (1995) breaks the model down as follows:

1. DO - have an experience

2. REVIEW - review what happened and what can be learned from the situation.

3. PLAN – a way to approach the next experience to overcome some of the challenges and criticism faced first-time round.

In Doing Reviewing, Greenaway concluded “A good review helps to transform a powerful experience into an empowering learning process in which personal and social development is more in evidence. Reviewing can both enhance and demonstrate the educational potential of adventure.” (Greenaway, 1992: 17).

How to Cite the Greenaway Reflective Model

The reference for Greenaway's reflection should be presented as follows:

Greenaway, R. (1995). Powerful learning experiences in management learning and development: a study of the experiences of managers attending residential development training courses at the Brathay Hall Trust (1988-9), (Doctoral dissertation, University of Lancaster).

Additional References

Bulman, C., & Schutz, S. (Eds.). (2013). Reflective practice in nursing, London, John Wiley & Sons.

Greenaway, R. (1992). Doing reviewing. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 9(1), 15-17.

Howatson-Jones, L. (2016). Reflective practice in nursing, London, Learning Matters.

University of Edinburgh. (2019) [online]. The four F's of active reviewing, Available at, Accessed 18.07.2020.

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